Microdissected arm specific paints (ASPs) for human (HSA) chromosomes (Chrs) 2, 5, 6, 16, and 19 were used as probes on pig (SSC) and horse (ECA) metaphase chromosomes. Regions homologous to individual human arms were delineated in the two species studied. Of the ten ASPs used, HSA6 and 16 ASPs showed complete synteny conservation of individual arms as single blocks/arms both in pig and home. A similar trend was, in general, also observed for HSA19 ASPs. However, contrary to these observations, synteny conservation of individual arms of HSA2 and HSA5 was not observed in pig and horse. The arm specific painting data, coupled with the available gene mapping data, showed that, although HSA2 corresponded to two arms/chromosomes each in pig and horse, the breakpoint of this synteny in humans was not located at the centromere, but at HSA2q13 band. Similarly, arm specific paints for HSA5 showed that of the two blocks/chromosomes painted in pig and horse, one corresponded to HSA5q13-pter, the other to HSA5q13-qter. The findings suggest that 5q13 band may also be an evolutionary break point, similar to the one detected on HSA2q13. The microdissected human arm specific painting probes used in the present work provide more accurate and refined comparative information on pig and horse chromosomes than that available through the use of human whole chromosome specific paints.
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