Toxicological and pharmacological evaluation, antioxidant, ADMET and molecular modeling of selected racemic chromenotacrines {11-amino-12-aryl-8,9, 10,12-tetrahydro-7H-chromeno[2,3-b]quinolin-3-ols} for the potential prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's disease

María Jesús Oset-Gasque, María Pilar González, Javier Pérez-Peña, Nuria García-Font, Alejandro Romero, Javier Del Pino, Eva Ramos, Dimitra Hadjipavlou-Litina, Elena Soriano, Mourad Chioua, Abdelouahid Samadi, Dushyant S. Raghuvanshi, Krishna N. Singh, José Marco-Contelles

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38 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The pharmacological analysis of racemic chromenotacrines (CT) 1-7, bearing the 11-amino-12-aryl-8,9,10,12-tetrahydro-7H-chromeno[2,3-b]quinolin-3-ol ring skeleton, in a series of experiments targeted to explore their potential use for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD), is reported. The toxicological evaluation showed that among all these chromenotacrines, CT6 is much less hepatotoxic than tacrine in a range of concentrations from 1 to 300 μM, measured as cell viability in HepG2 cells. Moreover, CT6 did not significantly increase lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate transaminase, and alanine transaminase release in HepG2 cells. Besides, CT6 treatment exerts a high protective effect against the lipid peroxidation induced after H2O2-treated SH-SY5Y cells, in a concentration-dependent manner. CT6 showed an excellent antioxidant profile in the AAPH test, and protects against the decrease in cell viability induced by respiratory chain inhibitors (Oligomicyn A/Rotenone) and NO donors in neuronal cultures. This effect could be due to a mixed antiapoptotic and antinecrotic neuroprotective effect at low and intermediate CT6 concentrations, respectively. CT1-7 are potent and selective inhibitors of EeAChE in the submicromolar range. CT3 [IC50 (EeAChE) = 0.007 ± 0.003 μM], and CT6 [IC50 (EeAChE) = 0.041 ± 0.001 μM] are the most potent AChE inhibitors. Kinetic studies on the non-toxic chromenotacrine CT6 showed that this compound behaves as a non-competitive inhibitor (Ki = 0.047 ± 0.003 μM), indicating that CT6 binds at the peripheral anionic site, a fact confirmed by molecular modeling analysis. In silico ADMET analysis showed also that CT6 should have a moderate BBB permeability. Consequently, non-toxic chromenotacrine CT6 can be considered as an attractive multipotent molecule for the potential treatment of AD.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)491-501
Number of pages11
JournalEuropean Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Volume74
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 3 2014
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • 11-Amino-12-aryl-8,9,10,12-tetrahydro-7H-chromeno[2,3-b]quinolin-3-ols
  • ADMET
  • Alzheimer's disease
  • Antioxidant
  • EeAChE
  • Inhibition mechanism
  • Kinetic analysis
  • Molecular modeling
  • Neuroprotection
  • Tacrine analogs
  • Toxicity
  • hBuChE

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Drug Discovery
  • Organic Chemistry

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