The revision and transfer effects of direct and indirect comprehensive corrective feedback on ESL students’ writing

Khaled Karim, Hossein Nassaji

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

39 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This study investigated the short-term and delayed effects of comprehensive written corrective feedback (WCF) on L2 learners’ revision accuracy and new pieces of writing (i.e., the transfer effect of feedback). Three types of feedback were compared: direct feedback and two types of indirect feedback that differed in their degree of explicitness (i.e., underlining only and underlining+metalinguistic cues). Fifty-three intermediate level learners of English as a second language (ESL) were divided randomly into four groups: One direct, two indirect, and a control group. Students produced three pieces of writing from different picture prompts and revised them over a three-week period. Each group also produced a new piece of writing two weeks later. The study included seven sessions: Writing 1, revision of Writing 1, Writing 2, revision of Writing 2, Writing 3, revision of Writing 3, and Writing 4 (delayed writing). The results showed that all the three feedback groups significantly outperformed the control group in revision tasks. Some short-term accuracy improvements were also found on new pieces of writing for direct and underlining+metalinguistic feedback, but the effects were largely non-significant.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)519-539
Number of pages21
JournalLanguage Teaching Research
Volume24
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jul 1 2020

Keywords

  • SLA
  • comprehensive corrective feedback
  • direct and indirect feedback
  • focused feedback
  • unfocused feedback
  • written corrective feedback

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Language and Linguistics
  • Education
  • Linguistics and Language

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