Rhizosphere-competent isolates of streptomycete and non-streptomycete actinomycetes capable of producing cell-wall-degrading enzymes to control Pythium aphanidermatum damping-off disease of cucumber

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Abstract

Fifty-eight streptomycete and 35 non-streptomycete actinomycetes were isolated from cucumber rhizosphere soil. These isolates were screened for the production of cell-wall-degrading enzymes using mycelial (Pythium aphanidermatum (Edson) Fitzp.) fragment agar. Eighteen promising isolates were screened for their competence as root colonizers. Eight isolates showing exceptional rhizosphere competence significantly inhibited, in vitro, P. aphanidermatum, the causal agent of postemergence damping-off of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seedlings. The four most inhibitory isolates (Actinoplanes philippinensis Couch, Microbispora rosea Nonomura and Ohara, Micromonospora chalcea (Foulerton) Ørskov, and Streptomyces griseoloalbus (Kudrina) Pridham et al.) produced in vitro β-1,3-, β-1,4-, and β-1,6-glucanases and caused lysis of P. aphanidermatum hyphae. None of these produced volatile inhibitors or siderophores. Only S. griseoloalbus produced diffusible inhibitory metabolites, whilst A. philippinensis and Micromonospora chalcea parasitized the oospores of P. aphanidermatum. These four isolates were subsequently tested in the greenhouse, individually or as a mixture, for their ability to suppress damping-off of cucumber seedlings in soil with or without cellulose amendment. The treatment, which included all four isolates in soil amended with cellulose, was significantly superior to all other treatments in suppressing damping-off and was nearly as good as the metalaxyl treatment. Results show that there is a potential to use a mixture of antagonistic rhizosphere-competent actinomycetes along with cellulose amendment rather than fungicides for the field management of this disease. This is the first study that has involved the screening of rhizosphere-competent non-streptomycete actinomycetes capable of producing cell-wall-degrading enzymes, for the management of Pythium diseases.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)211-222
Number of pages12
JournalCanadian Journal of Botany
Volume84
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Feb 1 2006

Keywords

  • Biological control
  • Cellulose amendment
  • Lytic enzymes
  • Pythium aphanidermatum
  • Rhizosphere competence
  • Soilborne plant pathogens

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Plant Science

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