We studied the outcome of 47 adult patients with relapsed acute leukaemia (AML = 25 and ALL = 22) treated with FLAG–mitoxantrone regimen. Median time to relapse was 10.7 months (range 1.9–27.7). Complete remission (CR2) was 60.1% which was significantly more frequent in ALL compared to AML (P = 0.049). WBC count < 100 × 109/L at initial diagnosis and time to relapse > 1 year were significantly predictor for CR2 in AML (P = 0.005 for both). Induction death was significantly higher in ALL compared to AML (P = 0.039). Median follow-up was 4.0 months (0.9–119.8) for AML and 2.1 months (range 0.6–118.1) for ALL. Nine patients underwent allogeneic stem-cell transplantation (allo-SCT). Estimated overall survival (OS) at 12 and 18 months was 60.5 and 34.6%, respectively, for AML, and 39.9 and 29.9%, respectively, for ALL. For AML patients failure to achieve CR, WBC count at initial diagnosis > 5 × 109/L and poor cytogenetic risk group was significant predictors of poor OS (P = 0.010, P = 0.025, and P = 0.015, respectively). For ALL patients failure to achieve of CR, WBC count at relapse < 5 × 109/L (CR patients) and lack of any type of consolidation therapy were significant predictor of poor OS (P < 0.001, P = 0.008, P = 0.008, respectively).
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