Phenotypic and genotypic drug sensitivity profiles of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and associated factors in northeastern Ethiopia

Fikru Gashaw, Berhanu Erko, Yalemtsehay Mekonnen, Bazezew Yenew, Misikir Amare, Balako Gumi, Gobena Ameni

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Tuberculosis is a devastating and a deadly disease despite the novel advances in its diagnostic tools and drug therapy. Drug resistant Mycobacterium contributes a great share to tuberculosis mortality. Status of drug resistance and patients’ awareness toward the disease is unknown in northeastern Ethiopia. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the phenotypic and genotypic drug sensitivity patterns and associated factors in Oromia Special Zone and Dessie Town, northeastern Ethiopia. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 384 smear positive tuberculosis cases were recruited and Löwenstein-Jensen culture was done. The performance of GenoTypic MTBDRplus assay using the conventional BACTEC MGIT 960 as a “gold standard” was determined. Drug resistant strains were identified using spoligotyping. Pearson Chi-square test was used to determine the association of drug sensitivity test and tuberculosis type, lineages, dominant strains and clustering of the isolates. Results: The 384 smear positive Mycobacterium samples were cultured on LJ media of which 29.2% (112/384) as culture positive. A fair agreement was found between MTBDRplus assay and the conventional MGIT test in detecting the Mycobacterium tuberculosis with sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of 94.2, 30.2, 68.4 and 76.5%, respectively. Among LJ culture positive samples 95 of them gave valid result for MTBDRplus assay and 16.8% (16/95) as drug resistant. Similarly, MGIT subculture was made for the 112 isolates and 69 of them gave positive result with 15.9% (11/69) as drug resistant. Cohen’s kappa value showed almost a perfect agreement between the two testing methods in detecting rifampicin (sensitivity 100% and specificity 98.3%) and multi-drug resistance (sensitivity 83.3% and specificity 100%). Spoligotyping identified 76.5% (13/17) of the drug resistant isolates as Euro-American and family 33 as the predominant family. Significant association was observed between drug resistant isolates and the dominant strains (χ2: 34.861; p = 0.040) of the Mycobacterium. Conclusion: Higher magnitude of drug resistance was found in the study area. The GenoTypic MDRTBplus assay had an acceptable drug sensitivity testing performance.

Original languageEnglish
Article number261
JournalBMC Infectious Diseases
Volume21
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2021

Keywords

  • BACTEC MGIT 960
  • Drug resistance
  • MTBDRplus assay
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis
  • Northeastern Ethiopia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Infectious Diseases

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