Perirenal Adipose Tissue Inflammation: Novel Insights Linking Metabolic Dysfunction to Renal Diseases

Safaa H. Hammoud, Ibrahim AlZaim, Yusra Al-Dhaheri, Ali H. Eid, Ahmed F. El-Yazbi

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

A healthy adipose tissue (AT) is indispensable to human wellbeing. Among other roles, it contributes to energy homeostasis and provides insulation for internal organs. Adipocytes were previously thought to be a passive store of excess calories, however this view evolved to include an endocrine role. Adipose tissue was shown to synthesize and secrete adipokines that are pertinent to glucose and lipid homeostasis, as well as inflammation. Importantly, the obesity-induced adipose tissue expansion stimulates a plethora of signals capable of triggering an inflammatory response. These inflammatory manifestations of obese AT have been linked to insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes, and proposed to evoke obesity-induced comorbidities including cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). A growing body of evidence suggests that metabolic disorders, characterized by AT inflammation and accumulation around organs may eventually induce organ dysfunction through a direct local mechanism. Interestingly, perirenal adipose tissue (PRAT), surrounding the kidney, influences renal function and metabolism. In this regard, PRAT emerged as an independent risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is even correlated with CVD. Here, we review the available evidence on the impact of PRAT alteration in different metabolic states on the renal and cardiovascular function. We present a broad overview of novel insights linking cardiovascular derangements and CKD with a focus on metabolic disorders affecting PRAT. We also argue that the confluence among these pathways may open several perspectives for future pharmacological therapies against CKD and CVD possibly by modulating PRAT immunometabolism.

Original languageEnglish
Article number707126
JournalFrontiers in Endocrinology
Volume12
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2 2021

Keywords

  • adipose tissue inflammation
  • cardiovascular disease
  • chronic kidney disease
  • metabolic dysfunction
  • perirenal adipose tissue

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism

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