Background: Hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) has been increasingly used in the last few decades, with improved success in offering a cure. CNS complications are an important contributor to morbidity and mortality in HSCT patients. The aim of the study was to evaluate the role of imaging in the detection and assessment of CNSC (central nervous system complications) after HSCT in pediatric oncology patients. The study included consecutive pediatric patients who underwent HSCT for hematologic or solid malignancies at CCHE-57357 (Children Cancer Hospital–Egypt 57357) from January 2011 to March 2019. The age of the patients in the study ranged from 0.9 to 25 years (median age 6.5 years). CT (computed tomography) and/or MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) studies were evaluated for the detection and characterization of CNSC. Results: The incidence of post-HSCT CNSC was 13% with a day 100 and 5-year cumulative incidence of 9.3 and 12.5%, respectively. The most commonly observed CNSC detected was disease recurrence, followed by PRES (Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome). CNS recurrence of the initial diagnosis, atrophy, and infection were more common at the > 100-day post-HSCT transplant period, while PRES was much more common at < 100-day post-HSCT. Conclusion: CNS complications are an important contributor to morbidity and mortality in HSCT patients that require MRI protocols distinctively tailored for each patient, clinical suspicion, and proper imaging assessment for early detection and follow-up.
|Journal||Egyptian Journal of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine|
|Publication status||Published - Dec 2021|
- Hematopoietic stem cell transplant
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging