MOVES III. Simultaneous X-ray and ultraviolet observations unveiling the variable environment of the hot Jupiter HD189733b

V. Bourrier, P. J. Wheatley, A. Lecavelier Des Etangs, G. King, T. Louden, D. Ehrenreich, R. Fares, Ch Helling, J. Llama, M. M. Jardine, A. A. Vidotto

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

In this third paper of the MOVES (Multiwavelength Observations of an eVaporating Exoplanet and its Star) programme, we combine Hubble Space Telescope far-ultraviolet (FUV) observations with XMM-Newton/Swift X-ray observations to measure the emission of HD189733 in various FUV lines, and its soft X-ray spectrum. Based on these measurements we characterize the interstellar medium towards HD189733 and derive semisynthetic XUV spectra of the star, which are used to study the evolution of its high-energy emission at five different epochs. Two flares from HD189733 are observed, but we propose that the long-term variations in its spectral energy distribution have the most important consequences for the environment of HD189733b. Reduced coronal and wind activity could favour the formation of a dense population of Si2+ atoms in a bow-shock ahead of the planet, responsible for preand in-transit absorption measured in the first two epochs. In-transit absorption signatures are detected in the Lyman α line in the second, third, and fifth epochs, which could arise from the extended planetary thermosphere and a tail of stellar wind protons neutralized via chargeexchange with the planetary exosphere. We propose that increases in the X-ray irradiation of the planet, and decreases in its EUV irradiation causing lower photoionization rates of neutral hydrogen, favour the detection of these signatures by sustaining larger densities of H0 atoms in the upper atmosphere and boosting charge-exchanges with the stellar wind. Deeper and broader absorption signatures in the last epoch suggest that the planet entered a different evaporation regime, providing clues as to the link between stellar activity and the structure of the planetary environment.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)559-579
Number of pages21
JournalMonthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Volume493
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 1 2020

Keywords

  • ISM: clouds
  • Planet-star interactions
  • Planets and satellites: individual: HD189733b
  • Stars: chromospheres, coronae
  • Stars: individual: HD189733
  • Techniques: spectroscopic

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

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