Peptide tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY) has been isolated from the intestines of two species of reptile, the desert tortoise Gopherus agassizii (Testudines) and the Burmese python Python molurus (Squamata), from the primitive Actinopterygian fish, the bichir Polypterus senegalis (Polypteriformes) and from two agnathans, the Southern-hemisphere lamprey Geotria australis (Geotriidae) and the holarctic lamprey Lampetra fluviatilis (Petromyzontidae). The primary structure of bichir PYY is identical to the proposed ancestral sequence of gnathostome PYY (YPPKPENPGE10 | DAPPEELAKY20 | YSALR HYINL30 | ITRQRY). Tortoise and python PYY differ by six and seven residues, respectively, from the ancestral sequence consistent with the traditional view that the Testudines represent an earlier divergence from the primitive reptilian stock than the Squamates. The current views of agnathan phylogeny favor the hypothesis that the Southern-hemisphere lampreys and the holarctic lampreys arose from a common ancestral stock but their divergence is of a relatively ancient (pre-Tertiary) origin. The Geotria PYY-related peptide shows only two amino acid substitutions (Pro10→Gln and Leu22→Ser) compared with PYY from the holarctic lamprey Petromyzon marinus. This result was unexpected as Petromyzon PYY differs from Lampetra PYY deduced from the nucleotide sequence of a cDNA (Soderberg et al. J. Neurosci. Res. 1994;37:633-640) by 10 residues. However, a re-examination of an extract of Lampetra intestine revealed the presence of a PYY that differed in primary structure from Petromyzon PYY by only one amino acid residue (Pro10→Ser). This result suggests that the structure of PYY has been strongly conserved during the evolution of Agnatha and that at least two genes encoding PYY-related peptides are expressed in Lampetra tissues. Copyright (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V.
- Peptide tyrosine-tyrosine
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Biochemistry
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience