Introduction Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by M. tuberculosis complex and remains a major global public health problem. The epidemic remains a threat to sub-Saharan Africa, including Ethiopia, with further emergence of drug resistant TB. We investigated the drug sensitivity pattern and molecular epidemiology of mycobacterial strains isolated from pulmonary TB patients in and around Ambo town in Oromia Region, Central Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 105 consecutive new smear positive pulmonary TB patients diagnosed at Ambo Hospital and surrounding Health Centers between May 2014 and March 2015 upon informed consent. Sputum samples were cultured on Löw-enstein-Jensen (LJ) media using standard techniques to isolate mycobacteria. Region of difference 9 (RD9)-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and spoligotyping was employed for the identification of the isolates at species and strain levels. The spoligotype patterns were entered into the SITVIT database to determine Octal and SIT (Spoligotyping International Typing) numbers for each strain. The sensitivity of the isolates to isoniazid (INH), rifampicin (RIF), ethambutol (ETB) and streptomycin (STM) was evaluated on LJ-medium with the indirect proportion method. Results Cultures were positive in 86/105 (82%) of newly diagnosed smear positive pulmonary TB cases. All of the 86 isolates were confirmed as M. tuberculosis. The majority (76.7%) of them were clustered into seven groups while the rest (23.3%) appeared unique. The most predominant Spoligotypes were SIT53 and SIT149, consisting of 24.4% and 20.9% of the isolates, respectively. Assigning of the isolates to family using SPOTCLUST software revealed that 45.3% of the isolates belonged to T1, 23.3% to T3 and 13% to CAS family. The majority (76.7%) of the M. tuberculosis isolates were susceptible to all the four drugs. Any resistance to any one of the four drugs was detected in 23.3% of the isolates. The highest proportion of any resistance was observed against isoniazid (9.3%) and ethambutol (7%). There was only a single case (1.2%) of multidrug resistant/rifampicin resistant (MDR/ RR) TB. Conclusion The majority of the isolates were clustered suggesting on-going active transmission in the study area. Mono resistance is relatively prevalent while the magnitude of MDR/RR-TB was found to be lower than in previous studies.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)