The field of robotics relies heavily on various technologies such as mechatronics, computing systems, and wireless communication. Given the fast growing technological progress in these fields, robots can offer a wide range of applications. However real world integration and application development for such a distributed system composed of many robotic modules and networked robotic devices is very difficult. Therefore, middleware services provide a novel approach offering many possibilities and drastically enhancing the application development for robots. This paper surveys the current state of middleware approaches in this domain. It discusses middleware challenges in these systems and presents some representative middleware solutions specifically designed for robots. The selection of the studied methods tries to cover most of the middleware platforms, objectives and approaches that have been proposed by researchers in this field.