Background and Objectives: The antitumoral activities of granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) were shown earlier. In this study, the effects of GM-CSF were investigated on colon cancer induced by 18 weeks of 1-2 dimethylhydrazine (DMH) administration in rats. Methods: Four groups received subcutaneous saline (n = 20), 15 mg/kg DMH (n = 30), DMH +6 μg/kg GM-CSF (n = 30), and DMH +12 μg/kg (n = 30) GM-CSF. Results: The average number of tumors (2.8 vs. 1.5) and mean tumor volume (179 ± 36 vs. 27 ± 9 mm3; means ± SEM) were reduced in DMH + GM-CSF groups as compared to the DMH group (n = 30, P < 0.01). DMH-induced enhancement of free radicals and lipid peroxidation were decreased in DMH + GM-CSF group (n = 8-12, P < 0.05). The magnitude of DMH-induced alterations in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities was lowered in the DMH + GM-CSF group (n = 12-16, P < 0.05). DMH-induced increases in the total nitrite/nitrate levels and the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity (n = 10-12, P < 0.05) were also reduced in the DMH + GM-CSF group (n = 8-9, P < 0.05). Conclusions: The results indicate that GM-CSF inhibits the development of DMH-induced colon cancer in rats and suggest that inhibition of oxidative stress and NO pathway are involved in the observed antitumoral effects.
- Colon cancer
- Free radicals
- Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor
- Nitric oxide
ASJC Scopus subject areas