Homocysteine-lowering by b vitamins slows the rate of accelerated brain atrophy in mild cognitive impairment: A randomized controlled trial

A. David Smith, Stephen M. Smith, Celeste A. de Jager, Philippa Whitbread, Carole Johnston, Grzegorz Agacinski, Abderrahim Oulhaj, Kevin M. Bradley, Robin Jacoby, Helga Refsum

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504 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: An increased rate of brain atrophy is often observed in older subjects, in particular those who suffer from cognitive decline. Homocysteine is a risk factor for brain atrophy, cognitive impairment and dementia. Plasma concentrations of homo cysteine can be lowered by dietary administration of B vitamins. Objective: To determine whether supplementation with B vitamins that lower levels of plasma total homo cysteine can slow the rate of brain atrophy in subjects with mild cognitive impairment in a ran domised controlled trial (VITACOG, ISRCTN 94410159). Methods and Findings: Single-center, randomized, double-blind controlled trial of high-dose folic acid, vitamins B6 and B12 in 271 individuals (of 646 screened) over 70 y old with mild cognitive impairment. A subset (187) volunteered to have cranial MRI scans at the start and finish of the study. Participants were randomly assigned to two groups of equal size, one treated with folic acid (0.8 mg/d), vitamin B12 (0.5 mg/d) and vitamin B6 (20 mg/d), the other with placebo; treatment was for 24 months. The main outcome measure was the change in the rate of atrophy of the whole brain assessed by serial volumetric MRI scans. Results: A total of 168 participants (85 in active treatment group; 83 receiving placebo) completed the MRI section of the trial. The mean rate of brain atrophy per year was 0.76% [95% CI, 0.63-0.90] in the active treatment group and 1.08% [0.94-1.22] in the placebo group (P = 0.001). The treatment response was related to baseline homo cysteine levels: the rate of atrophy in participants with homo cysteine > 13 μmol/L was 53% lower in the active treatment group (P = 0.001). A greater rate of atrophy was associated with a lower final cognitive test scores. There was no difference in serious adverse events according to treatment category. Conclusions and Significance: The accelerated rate of brain atrophy in elderly with mild cognitive impairment can be slowed by treatment with homo cysteine-lowering B vitamins. Sixteen percent of those over 70 y old have mild cognitive impairment and half of these develop Alzheimer's disease. Since accelerated brain atrophy is a characteristic of subjects with mild cognitive impairment who convert to Alzheimer's disease, trials are needed to see if the same treatment will delay the development of Alzheimer's disease.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere12244
Pages (from-to)1-10
Number of pages10
JournalPLoS ONE
Volume5
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2010
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
  • General

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