External validation and clinical usefulness of three commonly used cardiovascular risk prediction scores in an Emirati population: A retrospective longitudinal cohort study

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Abstract

Objectives Cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk prediction models are useful tools for identifying those at high risk of cardiovascular events in a population. No studies have evaluated the performance of such risk models in an Arab population. Therefore, in this study, the accuracy and clinical usefulness of two commonly used Framingham-based risk models and the 2013 Pooled Cohort Risk Equation (PCE) were assessed in a United Arab Emirates (UAE) national population. Design A 10-year retrospective cohort study. Setting Outpatient clinics at a tertiary care hospital, Al-Ain, UAE. Participants The study cohort included 1041 UAE nationals aged 30-79 who had no history of CVD at baseline. Patients were followed until 31 December 2019. Eligible patients were grouped into the PCE and the Framingham validation cohorts. Exposure The 10-year predicted risk for CVD for each patient was calculated using the 2008 Framingham risk model, the 2008 office-based Framingham risk model, and the 2013 PCE model. Primary outcome measure The discrimination, calibration and clinical usefulness of the three models for predicting 10-year cardiovascular risk were assessed. Results In women, the 2013 PCE model showed marginally better discrimination (C-statistic: 0.77) than the 2008 Framingham models (C-statistic: 0.74-0.75), whereas all three models showed moderate discrimination in men (C-statistic: 0.69 €'0.70). All three models overestimated CVD risk in both men and women, with higher levels of predicted risk. The 2008 Framingham risk model (high-risk threshold of 20%) classified only 46% of women who subsequently developed incident CVD within 10 years as high risk. The 2013 PCE risk model (high-risk threshold of 7.5%) classified 74% of men who did not develop a cardiovascular event as high risk. Conclusions None of the three models is accurate for predicting cardiovascular risk in UAE nationals. The performance of the models could potentially be improved by recalibration.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere040680
JournalBMJ Open
Volume10
Issue number10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Oct 28 2020

Keywords

  • cardiovascular disease
  • framingham
  • pooled cohort equation
  • risk prediction
  • united arab emirates
  • validation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

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