The fundamental period of vibration is a critical structural dynamic characteristic in seismic design. Several expressions for the calculation of the fundamental period have been recommended by different building codes and previous studies. However, further studies are still needed to evaluate the design expressions used for the calculation of the fundamental periods and assess the need for further refinement. In this study, comprehensive fundamental period data from two sources is collected and compared with different formulas from building codes and previous studies. The first data set is obtained from 147 instrumented buildings with various lateral force resisting systems (LFRSs). The second set of period data are collected from the dynamic response simulations of selected structures. Different LFRSs are considered, including steel moment resisting frames (SMRFs), reinforced concrete moment resisting frames (RCMRFs), reinforced concrete shear walls (RCSWs), concentrically braced frames (CBFs), eccentrically braced frames (EBFs), masonry structures and pre-cast structures. The correlations between the derived period expressions with those recommended by the design provisions show that the code approach is conservative enough for SMRFs, CBFs, masonry buildings and pre-cast structures. For RCMRFs, EBFs and RCSWs, the design code is slightly unconservative for low-rise buildings. The outcomes of the study help to arrive at more efficient and cost-effective seismic design of buildings with different characteristics.