The one-humped camel is a typical desert animal. It has the capability of withstanding the harsh climatic changes and the scarcity of food and water, in addition to the high-ambient temperature. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus in two different groups of the one-humped camel, group (A) control (n = 102) camels and group (B) high-calorie diet-fed camels (n=103), in Al-Ain region (UAE) was studied using biochemical and radioimmunoassay techniques. In this article, 7% of the control camels have diabetes mellitus (blood glucose level: ≥140 mg/dL) compared to 21% of the high-calorie-fed camels. Plasma insulin level was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in group B compared to group A. The low insulin level in camels consuming high-caloric diet could be a sign of exhaustion of pancreatic beta cells. The hematological parameters were nearly similar in both groups and no significant differences were seen. Liver and kidney enzymes were normal in both groups. Iron and copper were significantly (P < 0.005) higher in the high-calorie-fed camels compared with the control. Our study indicates that high-caloric feed consumption in camels is associated with the development of disorders in glucose metabolism leading to diabetes mellitus.