Early (5-day) onset of diabetes mellitus causes degeneration of photoreceptor cells, overexpression of incretins, and increased cellular bioenergetics in rat retina

Jennifer O. Adeghate, Crystal D’souza, Orsolya Kántor, Saeed Tariq, Abdul Kader Souid, Ernest Adeghate

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The effects of early (5-day) onset of diabetes mellitus (DM) on retina ultrastructure and cellular bioenergetics were examined. The retinas of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were compared to those of non-diabetic rats using light and transmission electron microscopy. Tissue localization of glucagon-like-peptide-1 (GLP-1), exendin-4 (EXE-4), and catalase (CAT) in non-diabetic and diabetic rat retinas was conducted using immunohistochemistry, while the retinal and plasma concentration of GLP-1, EXE-4, and CAT were measured with ELISA. Lipid profiles and kidney and liver function markers were measured from the blood of non-diabetic and diabetic rats with an automated biochemical analyzer. Oxygen consumption was monitored using a phosphorescence analyzer, and the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) level was determined using the Enliten ATP assay kit. Blood glucose and cholesterol levels were significantly higher in diabetic rats compared to control. The number of degenerated photoreceptor cells was significantly higher in the diabetic rat retina. Tissue levels of EXE-4, GLP-1 and CAT were significantly (p = 0.002) higher in diabetic rat retina compared to non-diabetic controls. Retinal cellular respiration was 50% higher (p = 0.004) in diabetic (0.53 ± 0.16 µM O2 min−1 mg−1, n = 10) than in non-diabetic rats (0.35 ± 0.07 µM O2 min−1 mg−1, n = 11). Retinal cellular ATP was 76% higher (p = 0.077) in diabetic (205 ± 113 pmol mg−1, n = 10) than in non-diabetic rats (116 ± 99 pmol mg−1, n = 12). Thus, acute (5-day) or early onslaught of diabetes-induced hyperglycemia increased incretins and antioxidant levels and oxidative phosphorylation. All of these events could transiently preserve retinal function during the early phase of the progression of diabetes.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1981
JournalCells
Volume10
Issue number8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2021

Keywords

  • ATP
  • Antioxidants
  • Bioenergetics
  • Catalase
  • Diabetes
  • Electron microscopy
  • Exendin-4
  • Glucagon-like peptide-1
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Respiration
  • Retinopathy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

Fingerprint

Dive into the research topics of 'Early (5-day) onset of diabetes mellitus causes degeneration of photoreceptor cells, overexpression of incretins, and increased cellular bioenergetics in rat retina'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this