Background :The impact of obesity on cardiovascular health of young children is still to be fully illustrated. This study measured biomarkers for glycemic control, lipid metabolism, systemic inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and hepatic cholestasis in schoolchildren. Its main purpose was to determine whether metabolic derangements could be detected in young children with excess fat. Method: This cross-sectional study involved 967 children in the second, sixth, and tenth grades (median age, 7.3, 11.3, and 15.4 years, respectively). Using the International Obesity Task Force interpretation (IOTF) of body-mass-index (BMI), children were stratified as thin (<5th centiles), normal (5th to <85 th centiles), overweight (85th to <95 th centiles), obese (95th to <98 th centiles), or extremely-obese (≥98 th centiles). Waist circumference was also measured. Several metabolic determinations were then used as surrogate biomarkers for cardiovascular risks. Results Prevalence of BMI≥85 th centile among the second graders was 13.1%, sixth graders 42.2%, and tenth graders 33.8%. BMI≥85 th centile was associated with a tendency for higher hemoglobin A 1c (p≥0.160) and higher blood glucose (p≥0.197). For the second graders, BMI≥85 th centile was associated with higher high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP, p<0.001), higher tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-alpha, p<0.001), higher interleukin-6 (IL-6, p<0.001), higher soluble intercellular cytoadhesive molecule-1 (sICAM-1), higher triglycerides (p≤0.024), and lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL, p<0.001). Additionally, for the sixth and tenth graders, BMI≥85 th centile was associated with higher gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT, p<0.001). In the sixth graders, BMI≥85 th centile was insignificantly changed with sICAM-1 or the soluble vascular cytoadhesive molecule-1 (sVCAM-1). Conclusions: The studied children with excess fat had increased risks for developing systemic inflammation, dyslipidemia, endothelial dysfunction, cholestasis, and diabetes. These results suggest that metabolic biomarkers should be included in the routine assessment of children with an overweight problem.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)