Dose response of whole-grain biomarkers: Alkylresorcinols in human plasma and their metabolites in urine in relation to intake

Rikard Landberg, Per Åman, Lena E. Friberg, Bengt Vessby, Herman Adlercreutz, Afaf Kamal-Eldin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

88 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Alkylresorcinols (ARs), phenolic lipids almost exclusively present in the outer parts of wheat and rye grains in commonly consumed foods, have been proposed as specific dietary biomarkers of whole-grain wheat and rye intakes. Objective: The objective was to assess the dose response of plasma ARs and the excretion of 2 recently discovered AR metabolites in 24-h urine samples in relation to AR intake and to establish a pharmacokinetic model for predicting plasma AR concentration. Design: Sixteen subjects were given rye bran flakes containing 11, 22, or 44 mg total ARs 3 times daily during week-long intervention periods separated by 1-wk washout periods in a nonblinded randomized crossover design. Blood samples were collected at baseline, after the 1-wk run-in period, and after each treatment and washout period. Two 24-h urine samples were collected at baseline and after each treatment period. Results: Plasma AR concentrations and daily excretion of 2 urinary AR metabolites increased with increasing AR dose (P < 0.001). Recovery of urinary metabolites in 24-h samples decreased with increasing doses from ≈90% to ≈45% in the range tested. A one-compartment model with 2 absorption compartments with different lag times and absorption rate constants adequately predicted plasma AR concentrations at the end of each intervention period. Conclusion: Both plasma AR concentrations and urinary metabolites in 24-h samples showed a dose-response relation to increased AR intake, which strongly supports the hypothesis that ARs and their metabolites may be useful as biomarkers of whole-grain wheat and rye intakes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)290-296
Number of pages7
JournalAmerican Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Volume89
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2009
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

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