Purpose: To prospectively evaluate the accuracy of 64-section computed tomography (CT) for diagnosis of stent restenosis, by using conventional coronary angiography as the reference standard. Materials and Methods: The ethics committee granted permission for the study; patients gave written consent. Contrast material-enhanced coronary CT angiography was performed in 53 patients (45 men, eight women; mean age, 54 years ± 9 [standard deviation]) suspected of having stent restenosis. Coronary CT angiographic findings were compared with conventional coronary angiographic findings. Two physicians analyzed coronary CT angiographic data sets with multiplanar reformatted images and three-dimensional reformations by using a volume-rendering technique and looked for stent detectability, low-attenuation in-stent filling defects, and grades of restenosis. Conventional coronary angiographic results were interpreted by one of several observers in consensus for stent restenosis; they were blinded to coronary CT angiographic data. Statistical software and general estimating equations were used for data analysis. Results: One hundred ten stents were identified in 53 patients. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of coronary CT angiography in detection of in-stent restenosis were 96.9%, 88.0%, 77.5%. 98.5%, and 91%, respectively. Coronary CT angiography depicted in-stent low-attenuation filling defects with an accuracy of 91% and negative predictive value of 98.5% (95% confidence interval: 90.9, 99.9). Coronary CT angiography depicted the status of 97 of 107 stents. There was no significant difference between in-stent lumen visibility and stent diameter (P = .104). Coronary CT angiography helped diagnose 15 of 18 stent restenoses with less than 50% narrowing, five of five stent restenoses with 50%-74% narrowing, and nine of nine (100%) stent restenoses with 75% or greater narrowing or total occlusion of the stent lumen. Conclusion: Coronary CT angiography can depict in-stent low-attenuation filling defects, which appear to be a reliable sign of stent restenosis, and 64-section CT depicts such defects with a high degree of accuracy.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging