This study analyzes and classifies items that display sex-related Differential Item Functioning (DIF) in attitude assessment. It applies the Educational Testing Services (ETS) procedure that is used for classifying DIF items in testing to classify sex-related DIF items in attitude scales. A total of 982 items that measure attitudes from 23 real data sets were used in the analysis. Results showed that sex DIF is common in attitude scales: more than 27% of items showed DIF related to sex, 15% of the items exhibited moderate to large DIF, and the magnitudes of DIF against males and females were not equal.
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