Diabetes mellitus (DM) shows a markedly increased incidence of cardiovascular pathology that leads to hypertension, endothelial macro- and microangiopathy, diabetic nephropathy, and myocardial infarction. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), is a 28 amino acid peptide hormone synthesized mainly by the heart atria and ventricles. It has potent diuretic and natriuretic properties. In this article the effect of long-term DM on blood plasma, kidney, and heart atrial and ventricular ANP concentrations were evaluated in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced 8-month diabetic and control rats by using radioimmunoassay (RIA). Moreover, ANP receptors in STZ-induced, 8-month diabetic rat kidneys were studied by receptor autoradiography. In addition, the expression of ANP concentrations in the kidney of diabetic and control rats was evaluated by means of immunohistochemistry. Body weight loss and increased blood glucose levels were used as indices of DM in the STZ-induced diabetic rats. Our results showed significantly higher ANP concentrations in diabetic plasma (P < 0.05), kidney (P < 0.01), heart atria (P < 0.05), and ventricles (P < 0.01) compared to controls. We also demonstrated a significant decrease in ANP receptors in the outer cortex (P < 0.05), juxtaglomerular medulla (P < 0.05), and papilla (P < 0.05) of 8-month diabetic rat kidneys compared to controls. The observed increase in ANP levels in plasma and kidney could play a role in the development of diabetic nephropathy: probably by reducing the levels of ANP receptors in diabetic kidney. Furthermore, the role of ANP in the STZ-induced diabetic heart merits additional study.