Alteration and mass transfer in cataclasites and mylonites in 6.6 km of granitic crust at the Siljan impact structure, central Sweden

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Abstract

Granitic rocks deformed by cataclasis and mylonitization on macro- (a few meters) and micro- (thin section) scales are found at depths down to 6.6km in the Siljan impact structure in central Sweden. Granites near fault planes exhibit: (1) fracturing, kinking, fragmentation, and recrystallization of feldspars into pure K and Na endmember varieties, (2) fragmentation, polygonization and development of undulose extinction in quartz, and (3) kinking, appearance of wavy extinction and alteration of biotite, chlorite, amphibole, and alteration of ilmenite and magnetite. Whole-rock chemical analyses of deformed and undeformed rocks show that deformed rocks are enriched in SiO2 (by about 5 wt.%) and depleted in other oxides by variable percentages. Apart from Rb and Co, the concentrations of other trace elements (including Ba, Sr, Zn, Zr, Pb, Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, V, U, Th, La, and Li) are lower in deformed relative to undeformed rocks. Mass-balance calculations for a 1000 cm3 model granite which were based on modal mineralogy, whole-rock chemistry, and mineral analyses suggest that the break down of primary biotite, chlorite, and amphibole in deformed zones released elements to circulating fluids. These calculations also indicate liberation of water and a doubling of porosity (from ∼1 to 2%) during the deformation episodes. Later precipitation of minerals in shear and tension fractures reduced this porosity. Within the upper 2000 m of the Gravberg-1 well, the formation of fracture-filling minerals (smectite, calcite, hematite, chlorite, and albite) is impact-related, and was favored by active circulation of meteoric water. Fracture-filling minerals in the upper 2000 m of the borehole formed at temperatures of 70° to 200°C. Between depths of 2000 and 3500 m, fracture-filling mineral assemblages (dominated by Fe-Mg chlorite, sphene and epidote) suggest formation temperatures in the range of 150° to 300°C. Occurrence of pumpellyite and prehnite in some altered biotite and chlorite of the deformed zones between 3500 and 5500 m suggest preimpact metamorphism and formation temperature above 150°C. Below 5500 m, the mineral assemblages in the fractures are dominated by quartz, sphene, epidote, and some muscovite and chlorite, indicating a temperature range between 300° and 450°C. One of the possible origins for the CH4 and H2 gases detected in the Gravberg-1 well is a combination of hydrogen ions released by decomposition of hydrated silicates (biotite, chlorite, hornblende) with carbon. The presence of iron in the deformed granitic rocks prevented the resulting CH4 from being oxidized.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)662-676
Number of pages15
JournalContributions to Mineralogy and Petrology
Volume105
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Nov 1 1990
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geophysics
  • Geochemistry and Petrology

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