The downregulation of cannabinoid type-2 receptors (CB2R) have been reported in numerous diseases including cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). The activation of CB2R has recently emerged as an important therapeutic target to mitigate myocardial injury. We examined whether CB2R activation can protect against isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial injury (MI) in rats. In the present study, we investigated the cardioprotective effect of β-caryophyllene (BCP), a naturally occurring dietary cannabinoid in rat model of MI. Rats were pre- and co-treated with BCP (50 mg/kg, orally) twice daily for 10 days along with subcutaneous injection of ISO (85 mg/kg) at an interval of 24 h for two days (9th and 10th days). AM630 (1 mg/kg), a CB2 receptor antagonist, was injected intraperitoneal as a pharmacological challenge prior to BCP treatment to reveal CB2R-mediated cardioprotective mechanisms of BCP. Desensitization of beta-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) signaling, receptor phosphorylation and recruitment of adapter β-arrestins were observed in ISO-induced MI in rats. ISO injections caused impaired cardiac function, elevated the levels of serum cardiac marker enzymes, and enhanced oxidative stress markers along with altered PI3K/Akt and NrF2/Keap1/HO-1 signaling pathways. ISO also promoted lysosomal dysfunction along with activation of NLRP3 inflammasomes and TLR4-NFκB/MAPK signaling and triggered rise in proinflammatory cytokines. There was a concomitant mitochondrial dysfunction followed by the activation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated Hippo signaling and intrinsic pathway of apoptosis as well as altered autophagic flux/mTOR signaling in ISO-induced MI. Furthermore, ISO also triggered dyslipidemia evidenced by altered lipids, lipoproteins and lipid marker enzymes along with ionic homeostasis malfunction. However, treatment with BCP resulted in significant protective effects on all biochemical and molecular parameters analyzed. The cardioprotective effects were further strengthened by preservation of cardiomyocytes and cell organelles as observed in histopathological and ultrastructural studies. Interestingly, treatment with AM630, a CB2R antagonist was observed to abrogate the protective effects of BCP on the biochemical and molecular parameters except hyperlipidemia and ionic homeostasis in ISO-induced MI in rats. The present study findings demonstrate that BCP possess the potential to protect myocardium against ISO-induced MI in a CB2-dependent and independent manner.
|Number of pages||19|
|Journal||Free Radical Biology and Medicine|
|Publication status||Published - May 1 2021|
- Myocardial injury
- Natural product
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physiology (medical)